Chinese cabbage virus disease

Cabbage virus disease is a major disease of Chinese cabbage, and it is also an important disease of cruciferous vegetables.

Symptoms: Chinese cabbage virus disease is also known as "Orphan," "cramp" and so on. Before the 6th leaf stage of Chinese cabbage, it is most susceptible to infection at the seedling stage. The heart veins appear bright veins and chlorotic along the veins. Leaves and leaves are not flat, some veins have faded spots or stripe spots, adult stage disease, leaf veins are distorted, leaves are shriveled, yellow-green leaves are interspersed, plants are dwarfed, necrotic spots on veins, roots are underdeveloped. The roots of the cuttings are yellowish-brown and can not be kicked when serious.
?? Pathogen? Damage The cruciferous vegetable virus disease mainly includes turnip mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. Turnip mosaic virus (Tumv) virus temperature 55 ~ 60 °C 10 minutes, transmitted by ticks. Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) virus particles spherical, passivation temperature of 60 ~ 70 °C for 10 minutes, transmitted by ticks and so on. Tobacco mosaic virus, spread by frictional contact.
?? The characteristics of the disease? Viral disease in the cellar cabbage, cabbage, radish overwintering spinach winter. In the spring, it is spread by locusts or contact to vegetables, then to cruciferous vegetables in summer and to autumn cabbage. Cabbage virus disease is also called “dry orphan”. It can be seen that drought and high temperature are the climatic factors that are suitable for the occurrence and epidemic of viruses. Therefore, high soil temperature, low soil moisture, and early sowing of cabbage cause disease and heavy disease. Subjects of vegetables are preoccupied with the disease because of serious infections.
In northern and northeastern China, when there are no cabbages and other hosts growing in the open field, virus can continue to exist in the cellar of cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables and their seed strains, becoming the second spring blossom season. The initial infestation source. In areas with greenhouses and plastic greenhouses, it is the primary source of infection for the virus circulating with the overwintering host. In the ever-green southern regions, the virus does not have wintering problems and is circulated throughout the year.
The virus spreads from one kind of vegetable to another, and its wings are decisive. From the perspective of effective prevention and control, special attention should be paid to the occurrence of winged pupae and the time of flight. Anatomy of cabbage leaves before harvest can reveal that most of the virus strains have intercalated necrotic spots in the south, southeast, and southwest directions. In other directions, there are fewer intercalary necrotic spots, which is enough to show that the relationship between aphids and viruses is very close.
Control methods
1. Selection of resistant (resistant) varieties generally speaking, high-type cabbage more resistant (resistant) Bo
2.. Dividing seedlings? There are two kinds of seedlings for live and transplanted Chinese cabbage. When young crops were selected for transplanting young crops, the cruciferous crops were avoided as much as possible, because no ticks were found on the plants. The measures taken are either to re-build the soil, or to spray and kill the effective insecticide on the ground, and then sow the seedlings after controlling the aphids.
??3. Cold yarn covering seedlings? The seedlings of the nursery block are immediately covered with a 40-45 mesh white nylon or plastic gauze net to make a small arch cover so that the aphid can't get into it. In addition, white is a color that aphids do not like. So there is deterrence. At the same time, a small space covered with a gauze can be broadcast 1-3 days later than the exposed land.
??4. When it is timely to sow early, before sowing early sowing before Liqiu, combined with the old measures of pier shoots and relying on seedlings, the virus disease is obviously aggravated, and the first stage of virus infection is not good, and then many kinds of diseases occur one after another. Get high yields.
??5. The use of granules is carried out using ash, clay, etc. as a carrier, and granules are evenly formulated into granules in a ratio of 100:1 using 1% of dimethoate powder or 1% chlorfenone. The particle size is generally controlled at 1.5-2. Millimeters, sprinkle 1-3 shots of 5-10 kg/mu in the field 1-3 days before sowing, so as to drive away the remaining locusts. Before the 7th leaf stage after sowing, spread 2-4 more times to kill some of the moving aphids to fight for the best effect of killing the locusts. If the color of the surface loess is changed with the furnace ash, the amount of thorium can be reduced. It is important to emphasize here that before the seven-leaf stage of Chinese cabbage, it is a critical period for the infection of the virus. Various measures must be taken to minimize the infection of the virus.
6, the current commonly used chemical agents for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases are the following three: (1) toxic nemesis, also known as virus A or 20% hydrochloric acid morpholinium copper WP. Can be used to control tomato, pepper and other mosaic virus Bo concentration 400 to 600 times liquid. Spray once every 7 days for 3 to 4 consecutive times. The agent is easy to produce phytotoxicity at high concentrations, generally not less than 300 times better. (2) 15% of plant disease spirit, the amount of 60-120 ml per acre, against the amount of water spray, a total of 3 to 4 times every 7 days. (3) 83 activator, a kind of virus-inducing agent, is also used to prevent and cure many kinds of vegetable virus diseases. It is sprayed before and after colonization, and the constant is 600-1000 ml/mu, against the appropriate amount of water spray. Once every 7 days, a total of 3 to 4 times, both the prevention effect, as well as promote early maturation and increase production.
???7. The selected disease-free strain is used as a vegetable strain for planting. After a long storage period, there is ample room for selecting a disease-free strain, and careful attention should be paid to selecting and retaining the strain.
A practical method of identification is provided here. The leaf or leaf of the vegetable is used. When the outermost leaves are removed, the remaining exposed leaf base marks on the conical root are observed (especially the observation of vascular bundle breakage). Department), white and tender are healthy, yellow and brown are diseased plants.

Horse Oil: History and Production

Before gaining popularity as a beauty product, horse oil was used as a [folk medicine" in the days of ancient China. Believed to be a remedy for burns, insect bites, cuts, asthma, foot fungus, and even hair loss, the miracle oil was supposedly first brought to Japan over 1,000 years ago. Because its properties are similar to the oils naturally produced by human skin, it is easily absorbed by the skin and is safe for people all ages, including infants. Due to its effectiveness as a moisturizing agent and anti-irritant, horse oil became especially popular in Hokkaido, as it protects the skin from the region`s harsh climate and cold, dry air. The vast expanse of land in the region made it easy to farm horses for the oil.

The product is made by extracting the oils from horse fat. Horses are regularly farmed and raised for their meat in Japan, which is served in the form of basashi (raw horse), so the animals are not slaughtered solely for the purpose of a skincare product. Rather, they are farmed for food, and their oil is a byproduct of this process.

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