Latest Practical Cultivation Techniques of Nine Leaves and Green Pepper

First, the main purpose of pepper

The main fruits of economic utilization of pepper. Its skin is rich in volatile oil, can extract aromatic oils, as food spices and flavors of raw materials. Pericarp has a strong hemp flavor, is a good seasoning; seeds can be pressed oil, edible or industrial oil; peel, stems, seeds and roots, stems, leaves can be used as medicine, there is warm in the cold, dampness, insecticide, The function of analgesia can also be used to prevent and control warehousing pests (worm-killing); twigs and fresh leaves can be directly used as auxiliary materials for cooking or pickling; dry leaves can be used as spices for baking pasta; oil residue can be used as feed With fertilizers, stems are a good material for joinery. The current market conditions: pepper market is promising, from young fruit to mature fruit are sold, can be described as a market without goods.

Second, the morphological characteristics and fine varieties

Pepper is a deciduous shrub or small tree (green pepper is semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub or small tree), 3-7 meters high, fruit, branches, leaves, seeds are scented. The bark is dark brown and green with many knobs. Odd pinnate compound leaves, alternate, 7-11 leaflets, ovate long elliptic-shaped, leaf margin with serrated, tooth gap with transparent oil, petiole with prickles on both sides. Umbrella cone inflorescences terminal, unisexual or heterozygous. As a result, the skin has verrucous protrusions, red to purple when cooked (green peppers are green). Seeds 1-2 grains, garden-shaped or semi-circular, glossy black. The current cultivated varieties are Jiangjin Jiuyeqing, Dahongpao, Dahongjiao, Xiaohongjiao, Baishajiao, Doijiao, Qinan No.1, and so on. The thorny pepper has not been widely promoted because of its lack of variety in variety. Among them, various chemical active ingredients of Jiangjin Jiuye Blue Pepper are the highest in all Chinese prickly ash, and they are the raw materials for the deep processing of pepper.

Third, biological characteristics

(A) The habit of pepper

1, warm temperature. Pepper is a thermophilic tree species and requires higher temperatures during growth and development. According to the experimental one-year-old prickly ash seedlings, when the temperature dropped to -18°C, the shoots were freeze-damaged, and trees larger than 15 years old could resist the low temperature of -25°C. In the place where the soil on the sunny slope of the mountain is shallow and where there is a large temperature difference between day and night, it is prone to frost damage.

2, more resistant to drought. Generally, it grows well and has a large number of solids where the annual precipitation is about 600 mm. In arid climates, the leaves are wilted, and if it rains in the short term, it can still grow.

3, the most impatient. The growth of pepper needs a lot of oxygen. Short-term accumulation of water or flood erosion can make the prickly ash tree die due to lack of oxygen. In view of this characteristic of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, we must pay special attention to the selection of the Zanthoxylum bungeanum plantation to prevent the death of the Zanthoxylum bungeanum after the disaster.

4, very sensitive to storms. Therefore, it should not be planted on the mountain top, tuyere, and chilly areas. Strong adaptability to the soil, especially the deep fertile, moist sandy loam; the requirements of the soil pH is not strict, grow well in the neutral or acidic soil, and grow better in the mountainous calcareous loam. Poor growth in sandy and heavy soils.

5, hi light stronger. Under shaded conditions, growth and fruiting are all poor.

6, strong budding ability. Sprouting power, ability to trim strength, longer life buds. According to this characteristic, the perennial tree is updated, and the trunk can also sprout new branches. The roots are well developed and have the effect of maintaining water and soil. Using this characteristic of pepper, aging can be used after the bud regeneration.

(B) Phenophase (growth cycle)

Nine-leaves and blue-and-green peppers usually sprout in late March and early April, and fresh peppers can be listed in July. The fruit ripens before and after the beginning of autumn, and falls off on its own if it is not harvested in time. November leaves fall into dormancy. There are two peaks in the growth of the branches: mid-April to early June is the fast-growing stage, the growth slows down after the fruiting in early June to July, and the second growing peak appears in the early July-August, and in late August. Growth slowed down and growth stopped in mid-September.

Pepper grows fast and the result is early. The 1-year-old seedling height can reach about 1 meter. After 2-3 years of planting, there is a small amount of flowering results, a large number of results in 4-5 years, and lasts for 15-20 years. The growth life is about 30-40 years.

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