Vegetable soil testing and fertilizer application

The technique of soil testing and formula fertilization for vegetables is based on the content of soil nutrients and scientific and rational fertilization. This technology not only can be adjusted according to local conditions, saving fertilizer, but also can meet the needs of vegetable growth and development to the maximum extent, increase fertilizer utilization, increase production and income, and increase the economic benefits of vegetable production.
First, the principle of soil testing and formulating fertilization First, according to different types of vegetables and varieties, growth and development, yield and determination of soil nutrient content, determine the type and quantity of fertilization. According to the characteristics of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer, it is reasonable to use fertilizer. Farmyard manure, long fertilizer effect, with comprehensive nutrients, microbial activity, can loosen and improve soil quality, has a significant effect on improving vegetable yield and improving the quality of vegetables, and should be used as base fertilizer. Chemical fertilizers are quick-acting, short-lived, containing nutrients monotonous and suitable for topdressing. In order to increase the utilization of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and to exert their fertilizer efficiency, the two fertilizers are generally used together. According to the growth and development of vegetables, how much nutrients need to determine the number of top dressings, times and intervals. For example, vegetables with good growth and development, short growing period, less top dressing or no top dressing; vegetables with poor growth and growth, long growing period, should increase the frequency of topdressing and increase fertilizer. Usually every 7 days - 15 days chase 1, chase a total of 3 - 5 times. According to different vegetable varieties and fertilizer types, determine the fertilization method.
1. Apply more organic fertilizer. Organic manure is fully fermented, nutrient-rich, long-lasting fertilizer, conducive to absorption, can be used throughout the growth and development cycle of vegetables, but human fecal urine, but also can do chase months.
2. Scientific and rational application of chemical fertilizers. According to soil testing to understand the soil nutrient content and the performance of various fertilizers, determine the use of chemical fertilizer varieties, quantity and ratio. Fertilizer as a basal fertilizer is best used in combination with farmyard fertilizers because farmyard manure has the ability to adsorb nutrients from fertilizers and can increase fertilizer efficiency. Fertilizer as top-dressing as far as possible to take "a small number of times" fertilization method. The nutrient content of chemical fertilizers is high, and the amount should not be too much. Otherwise, the phenomenon of burning seedlings, burning roots, burning seedlings, burning leaves, etc. is prone to occur, and waste is caused at the same time. According to different vegetable types and varieties, determine the application of different fertilizers. Such as leafy vegetables need more nitrogen, can apply more urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonia and so on. Fruit and vegetable vegetables require more phosphorus and potassium, which can be applied to more diammonium phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium superphosphate, potassium chloride and so on. Rhizomes require more phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and multiple compound fertilizers can be applied.
3. With a variety of trace elements to promote foliar fertilizer. With a variety of micro. The amount of foliar fertilizer is simple and convenient. It saves time and labor, has complete nutrients, absorbs nutrients quickly, and has quick effects. A variety of nutrients are used in conjunction with what is lacking, and some fertilizers can be used in combination with neutral pesticides to play a variety of effects of pest control and fertilization.
4, promote the combination of deep basal fertilizer. Due to the accumulation of salt in the soil in the greenhouse, the topsoil is hardened or hardened. In combination with deep-casting basal fertilizer, the soil fertilizer is fully mixed, the upper and lower soil layers are mixed, and the crushed soil surface is crushed and turned to the lower layer, which can greatly reduce the surface soil compaction and salt damage.
Second, the determination of soil testing Fertilizer content, time and method of determination of the main contents are: soil properties, pH, organic matter content, water content, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper and other elements content. Time of determination: should be carried out before vegetable sowing or during slack cropping, but also in the growing season of vegetables to provide a numerical basis for prompt fertilizer application. The method of measurement is as follows: First, using a soil quick-measuring box to measure soil in the field, the method is simple, convenient and fast, and results can be produced at that time. The second is to take the soil back to the laboratory for analysis and determination. This method is more troublesome, but the data is more accurate.
Third, the main vegetable soil testing formula fertilization technology
1. cucumber. Cucumber is a kind of high-yielding vegetable, which has a long fruiting period and needs long-term nutrition that meets the needs of growth and development. It should be top-dressed in time. The production of 1,000 kg of cucumber requires 2.6 kg of pure nitrogen, 1.5 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 3.5 kg of potassium oxide. Before planting the cucumber, Mushi high-quality organic fertilizer 5000 kg -7500 kg, phosphate fertilizer 25 kg -30 kg as a base fertilizer. Cucumbers enter the first stage of fruiting melons for the first time, topdressing nitrogen fertilizer 10kg-15kg, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer 15kg-20kg, and then every 7 days-10days to recover 1 fertilizer, combined with watering. The entire cucumber growing period was applied 8 times - 10 times. Can also be 0.3% fertilizer concentration and pesticide or spray Bao, Zenggualing, Fengguo and other growth hormone mixture for foliar spray.
2. tomato. The production of 1,000 kilograms of tomatoes requires 3.85 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 1.2 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 4.4 kilograms of potassium chloride. Calculated according to 5,000 kilograms per mu, 5000 kilograms of high quality farmyard manure and 50 kilograms of phosphate fertilizer are planted before planting. When the first ear is enlarged to the yolk size, the first topdressing should be performed. The topdressing nitrogen of the mu is 18 kg to 20 kg, the phosphorus fertilizer is 15 kg to 16 kg, and the potassium fertilizer is 16 kg to 17 kg. The second, third and fourth panicles When the size of the egg yolk expands, the fertilizer should be top-dressed in a timely manner. At this time, the amount of fertilizer should be large, and the amount of fertilizer should be increased appropriately. Each time you are forced to combine watering. Can also be used 0.35% of the concentration of chemical fertilizers combined with disease prevention medication, spraying the leaves, but also can be mixed with the set fruit Ling, Fengguo mix spray.
3. chili. The production of 1,000 kg requires 5.2 kg of pure nitrogen, 1.2 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 6.5 kg of potassium chloride. Before planting, 5000 kg of high-quality farmyard manure and 50 kg of phosphate fertilizer were used as base fertilizer. The first time the hot pepper expands, the first time the top dressing is started to promote fruit enlargement. Mu topdressing pure nitrogen 15 kg -18 kg, phosphorus 18 kg -20 kg, potash 15 kg -17 kg. The second layer of fruit, the third layer of fruit, the fourth layer of fruit, and the amount of fertilizer required by the gypsophila are increased one by one. Each time, the amount of topdressing should be increased appropriately to meet the nutrients required for the result. Every time dressing topdressing should be combined with soil and watering. Can also be mixed 0.3% of the fruit, pepper spirit, etc. for foliar spray.
4. celery. The production of 1000 kg of celery requires 2 kg of nitrogen, 1 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 4 kg of potassium chloride. Before the planting, 5000 kg of high-quality farmyard manure and 40 kg of phosphate fertilizer were planted. When the height is 10 centimeters, the first time the top dressing is started, the topdressing nitrogen fertilizer is 7 kg - 10 kg, and the potassium fertilizer is 10 kg - 15 kg. The celery enters a vigorous growth period, chasing 1 fertiliser every 7-10 days, for a total of 3 to 4 times, applying 15kg-20kg of nitrogen fertilizer per acre, 10kg-20kg of phosphate fertilizer, and 20kg-25kg of potash fertilizer. . Every time you topdress, you should combine watering. Can also be combined with the prevention of disease with 0.3% concentration spray Shi Bao spraying.
5. spinach. Spinach needs to sleep for a long time in winter, so pay attention to fertilization. The production of 1000 kg of spinach requires 1.6 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.83 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 1.8 kg of potassium oxide. Before planting, 5000 kg of high-quality organic fertilizer and 40 kg of phosphate fertilizer were used. Sufficient basal fertilizer and strong seedling growth are the key to safe wintering of vegetables. Before wintering, spinach seedlings are about 10 cm high. According to the growth conditions, the overwintering fertilizer should be topdressed once and applied with 10 kg-15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer and 10 kg of phosphate fertilizer-15. kilogram. Be sure to pour frozen water once before winter to prevent death in winter. In the spring of next year, fertilizers should be top-dressed in a timely manner. Nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied at 20 kg to 25 kg, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer at 15 kg to 20 kg. The third fertilizer should be applied every 10 days to 15 days. Spinach dressing should not be spread in the heart of the fertilizer, so as not to cause burning seedlings, each top dressing should be combined with watering. 0.3% foliar fertilizer can also be used for foliar spray. The fertilization techniques for spring spinach and autumn spinach are basically the same as for winter spinach.


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