Spring and winter upland rice cultivation techniques

I. Pre-production management techniques for early rice in South China Rice Region At present, we must base ourselves on drought-resistant spring plowing, grab plugging and planting, and plant early rice before and after the Qingming period in the southern region, before and after the valley rain in the central region, and before the May 1st in the northern region. Focus on the following technical measures:

1, under the foot foot fat planted feet, early application of heavy fertilizer points. On the basis of applying martial arts to Putian, basal fat Mushi calcium 30 kg, potassium chloride 7.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 25 kg, where conditions permit the use of high-quality farmyard fertilizer 1000 to 1500 kg per mu. Insert 21,000 to 25,000 holes per acre, double seedlings (two grains per hole) for hybrid rice, and 4 to 6 seedlings per hole for conventional rice. 5 to 7 days after insertion, Mushi urea 5 to 6 kilograms to promote manure; 12 to 15 days after insertion, Mushi urea 7.5 kilograms, potassium chloride 7.5 to 10 kilograms, or compound fertilizer 12.5 to 15 kilograms For strong fertilizer.

2, thin water transplanting, shallow water back to green. When transplanting the field, keep 1.5 to 2 cm of thin water in the field, and transplant 3 to 4 cm of water in the field after transplanting. For the dumping plots, the field should not be allowed to leave a water layer during the throwing, and 1.5 to 2 cm shallow water layers should be recharged after standing. After returning green to the tillering period, the field water layer should be kept below 2 cm. 15 to 20 days after the insertion (throwing), the field tiller reaches the seedlings of 200,000 per mu and begins to drain.

3, prevention and control of pests and diseases. Actively implement comprehensive prevention and control of diseases and pests such as rice blast, leaf sheath blight, rice stem borer, and rice leaf roller.

II. Techniques for the management of double-cropping early rice seedlings in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

In the middle and early March, the rainy weather dominated the area. The planting time of the early rice was delayed. However, due to the continued high temperature after sowing, the seedlings grew faster and grew stronger. If the weather is still fine in the later period, early rice will be transplanted normally in the middle or late April.

The following technical measures should be taken in the early rice field:

1, pay attention to Putian irrigation. After the weather cools down, Putian should sprinkle water or water in a timely manner. In particular, the dry seedlings should be sprinkled with water more to prevent the death of young plants.

2, timely ventilation and hardening seedlings. When the temperature rises steadily, it is necessary to timely lift the thin film ventilating and curing seedlings on both sides of the trunk. In particular, in the case of high-temperature weather, the film must be opened earlier and watered or irrigated in time to protect the seedlings.

3, science to make good Miao Fei. After uncovering the film, apply uniform seedlings before and after irrigation or watering. Normally, 3 to 4 kg of urea should be applied per acre. The urea must be applied 3 to 5 days before transplanting. Generally, 4 to 5 kg of urea should be applied per acre.

III. Techniques for managing rice seedlings in the first season in the Southwest Rice Region

The current temperature in this area is suitable, there are plenty of water sources, the weather conditions are better than normal, and the seeds market is full of supplies, which is conducive to the management of rice breeding. However, due to the lunar calendar in July this year, the sowing time of some farmers has been delayed by 2 to 3 days compared with the normal year; the quality of the seeds for production this year is not as good as that of the normal years, and the emergence of some seedlings is not neat; the seedling rate of seedling emergence has declined; Without full implementation, seedlings infected with bastard disease tend to be heavy; in addition, some farmers relaxed the management of seedbeds and reduced the quality of seedlings.

The following technical measures should be taken currently:

1. Scientifically arrange the planting period and planting period. Winter slack fields and green manure fields should be planted on time, seize favorable weather, transplant in time, and if possible, actively promote rice intensified cultivation techniques for super high yield. In wheat (oil)-rice-ratio cropping areas, the age of common water-frying larvae is shorter than that of dry-fed larvae. The seedling period of mechanical transplanting seedlings is generally not more than 25 days, and the seedlings are thrown in trays for no more than 40 days. The planting period should be reasonably arranged according to this criterion. . In rain-fed areas that are perennially rainy, in accordance with the technical requirements for fostering “a long-lasting, long-lasting, dry land”, effective technical methods such as reducing seeding rate and spraying paclobutrazol are used to increase the elasticity of ageing.

2. Do a good job of pre-sowing seed treatment. It mainly includes technical links such as seed drying, seed selection, chemical soaking and germination, in order to increase the germination potential and uniformity of seeds, prevent disease at the seedbed stage, and achieve adequate seeding.

3. Check the seed germination rate and seedling emergence rate in time. In areas where seedlings are to be planted, the seeding rate should be determined according to the germination rate of the seed, the germination rate should be less than 80%, and the seeding rate can be increased; in the already nursery areas, the number of adult nymphs should be evaluated if the number of seedlings per acre is in the planned number. About 80% can strengthen the management of seedbeds, breed more and stronger seedlings, and use seedlings instead of seedlings; if it is less than 80% of the plan, it should be replanted in a timely manner.

4, vigilance high temperature burning seedlings and cold temperature damage. The focus is to strengthen the management of the film and the regulation of water and fertilizer. For the seedling seedlings that encounter high temperature and dry seedlings, covers such as straw should be covered to avoid burning the seedlings caused by direct sun rays. If there is a lack of water, it can be properly replenished in the evening.

5. Actively prevent and treat pests and diseases. According to the forecast of pests and diseases, control of thrips, aphids and rice blast.

IV. Techniques of rice breeding in one season in the northeastern rice area

In recent years, one-season rice seedlings in the northeast rice region are affected by the low temperature and humidity-prone climate. In March of this year, the temperature is the same as the normal year. Some areas are high, but the precipitation is 1 times more than normal. It is expected that in early April, the temperature will be lower than normal, the precipitation will be high, and the number of windy days will be higher.

Currently, the following technical measures should be taken to raise rice seedlings:

1. Adhere to Sonoda nursery. In order to ensure the seed germination and rooting temperature needs, conditional areas must insist on seedlings in the vegetable field or garden, try not to nurse in the field. If you can only raise seedlings in Honda, be sure to choose high-desert, high soil organic matter content and good permeability fields. It is best to build a high platform with a height of 30 cm or more, and gradually improve it to make it a permanent field.

2, do a good job in seed processing. Under the conditions of low temperature in early spring, after germination of seeds, after sowing fast rooting, early tillering, and neat emergence, it must be strictly in accordance with the procedures to do seed drying, salt water selection, disinfection, germination, sprouts and other seed treatment.

3, preparation of high-quality nutrient soil. The ratio of nutritive soils is: 60% to 70% of the soils containing more than 3% organic matter and 30% to 40% of high-quality fertilizers that are decomposed, chopped, and sieved, and the pH of the nutrient soil is adjusted to 4.5 to 5.0. According to 100 kilograms of nutrient soil per mu, add 150-200 g of ammonium sulfate, 300 g of sodium superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate. If you use strong agent, save the adjustment of acid and fertilizer. However, attention should be paid to supplementing nitrogen fertilizer from 3.5 leaves to 4.0 leaves before applying transplanting fertilizer, and 40-50 grams per square meter.

4, thin broadcast strong. According to the different needs of ordinary dry seedlings, isolation seedlings, and seedlings, the seeding rate is controlled at 150-300 grams per square meter.

5, temperature control hardening seedlings. In April and May in Northeast China, high temperature periods often occur in April and May. In order to prevent the seedlings from growing in length, the seedlings must be ventilated and controlled in the range of 1.5 leaves to 2.0 leaves. The bed temperature is controlled at 25 to 30°C; the bed temperature is between 2.5 and 3.0 leaves. Control at 20 ~ 25 °C.

6. Prevent pests and diseases. Pay close attention to the occurrence of bacterial wilt and blight at the seedling stage, and do a good job in prevention and treatment.

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