With the continuous development of the domestic pig industry, the degree of intensification of pigs is getting higher and higher, and the incidence of diseases is also increasing. It is more and more necessary for piglets to be weaned earlier. Practice has shown that early weaning of piglets has important implications for increasing the reproductive performance of sows, increasing the number of litters of sows, reducing the transmission of sow pathogens to piglets and improving the health of piglets. Therefore, weaning of piglets in advance is increasingly accepted by modern pig farms. The weaning age of piglets in many intensive pig farms is constantly being pushed forward, that is, from the past 28 days weaning gradually to 21-23 days, individual farms even advance to 16-17 days.
First, the importance of early weaning Early weaning piglets can shorten the sow's lactation time to improve the sow's reproductive rate and the number of litters per year, improve the utilization rate of the farrowing house, and reduce the piglet's production costs. In addition, pig diseases are becoming more and more complex today, and the early weaning of piglets has greatly reduced the chance that certain infectious diseases will be transmitted from sows to piglets. So early weaning of piglets is getting more and more attention.
2. Common problems in early weaned piglets Although early weaning techniques in piglets have important implications for blocking the spread of these diseases and improving reproductive performance of sows, they themselves pose new problems for pig producers, such as Early weaned piglets have gout and edema caused by diarrhea due to poor digestive function due to high protein diets. Piglets that develop diarrhoea often suffer from growth retardation and reduced feed utilization. If diarrhea is severe and cannot be treated promptly and effectively, piglets may become stagnant pigs and even cause death. At the same time, diarrhea in piglets results in poor constitution and subsequent infection. The situation of other diseases should also pay special attention. Such as weaning piglet multi-system failure syndrome caused by the presence of porcine circovirus (PCV), weaned piglet respiratory disease syndrome. The etiology of post-weaning diarrhea is complicated. Early studies focused on the control of pathogenic microorganisms (such as E. coli). However, recent studies at home and abroad have shown that there is a close relationship between diarrhea and nutritional factors in weaned piglets. A large number of production practices and scientific experiments show that: pathogenic microorganisms are often not the primary cause of diarrhea after weaning, but are only secondary causes. Because the digestive tract development of piglets is not yet complete, the digestive enzyme system is not yet complete, the secretion of gastric acid is insufficient, the biological characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbiological system are not yet stable, and the cause of the piglets' nutritional and environmental conditions that occur during weaning is caused. The sensation is very sensitive, which induces indigestion and diarrhea.
Third, weaning early weaning technology and its mechanism In order to solve the above problems related to weaning, scientific research personnel according to different weaning age, development characteristics and nutritional needs of each stage in the feeding and management methods, feeding equipment, feed formulations, feed ingredients A great deal of research has been conducted on the selection and production process, and has achieved great success. According to relevant literature reports, early weaning methods for piglets and their advantages and disadvantages are:
1. Routine weaning method This method is commonly used at present, that is, from the piglet 7 days old -15 kg body weight, the same kind of suckling pig trough feed is used, and about 28-35 days of age is weaned. The advantage of this method is that the operation is relatively simple, and there are fewer problems such as stress caused by frequent refueling. The disadvantage is that it can not meet the different nutritional needs of suckling pigs at various stages, and it can not reasonably save costs. If the common corn-soybean meal sucker used in the current market is used, the so-called weaning syndrome may occur due to nutritional failure to meet the needs of the weaned pig after weaning; if a completely new type of milk containing nutrients such as plasma proteins is used Pig material may have a large impact on the economics of the farm.
2, early weaning method This method is from piglets 7 days of age -15 kilograms of body weight using different nutritional ingredients of the piglet material. About weaning between 21-28 days of age. (1) 1 week after the piglet is born to weaning The preparation of the diet in this stage usually uses spray-dried plasma protein powder, acidifier, enzyme preparation, high proportion of added whey powder (lactose), amino acids and fish meal. The vegetal materials such as soybean meal must be processed by using puffing technology. The physiological and digestive characteristics of the suckling pig at this stage and the problems to be noted in the formulation of the feed are as follows: 1 Gastrointestinal digestive enzyme deficiency: Newborn piglets themselves can secrete various digestive enzymes that digest breast milk, and the lactase content is high. It can secrete enough lipase and protease to digest the fat and protein contained in breast milk, but the secretion and activity of other enzymes is very low. In addition, early weaning stress inhibited normal digestive enzyme secretion. Therefore, when selecting raw materials for piglet feeding, special attention should be paid to the digestibility of raw materials. The addition of enzyme preparations will undoubtedly alleviate the lack of enzyme in the piglets at this time. 2 Insufficient acid secretion in the digestive tract: Newborn piglets are imperfect in the development of digestive organs, and the endocrine system is immature, and the content of free hydrochloric acid in gastric juice is very small. However, because breast milk is rich in lactose, it can produce organic acids after fermented by lactic acid bacteria in the stomach, so that the pH value in the digestive tract can be maintained at a low level, so that the digestion and absorption of proteins can be carried out smoothly, and the living bacteria can also be prevented from The environment enters the lower part of the small intestine, thus avoiding the occurrence of diarrhea. After weaning, the source of lactose obtained from the mother is interrupted, so acidifiers and higher levels of whey or lactose should be added to the diet at this stage. 3 Low immunity: Newborn piglets can acquire maternal antibodies by absorbing immunoglobulin in colostrum and produce passive immunity; after 3 weeks of age, maternal antibodies decline. And weaning stress will reduce the level of circulating antibodies and inhibit the ability of cellular immunity. In order to avoid diarrhoea and other diseases during this period, immune-globulin-rich plasma protein powders and antibiotics can be added to the diet. 4 Effects of feed antigens: Proteins and polysaccharides that contain antigenic active ingredients in the diet may cause piglet allergies instead, thereby damaging the intestinal tissues of the piglets. On the one hand, the amount and activity of maltase and lactase may decrease. On the one hand, pathogenic microorganisms are prone to multiply in the damaged intestine, so that the piglets develop diarrhea that is both nutritive and pathogenic. Therefore, during the preparation of the piglet diet during this period, the botanical protein and other raw materials that have been expanded may be used for conditioning, and a certain amount of phytase may be appropriately added to the feed to remove the antigens in the feed. Reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea in piglets and help the piglets improve the function of the digestive system. (2) 1 week after weaning to 15 kg body weight The diet in this stage can appropriately reduce the protein and whey powder (lactose) content on the basis of the first stage diet and stop adding the expensive plasma protein powder.
Fourth, do a good job in epidemic prevention to ensure the smooth progress of early weaning work In order to create a good breeding environment, the farm must do the following: (1) All production stages of raising pigs should adopt all-in and all-out systems to avoid different ages Pigs are reared in groups to reduce the chance of exposure to infectious agents. (2) Establish a comprehensive bio-safety system for pig farms, and conduct disinfection and sanitation throughout the whole process of pig production to minimize the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms in pig farms and reduce or eliminate the chance of secondary infections in pigs. (3) Immunize against vaccines such as swine fever, swine pseudorabies, porcine parvovirus, and asthma, increase the overall immune status of the herd, reduce secondary infections of respiratory pathogens, and increase lung resistance. (4) To adopt a comprehensive drug prevention program to control the chance of secondary infection of the entire herd on bacterial diseases. Commonly used drugs include chlorpromazine, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur. , tylosin, long-acting sulfonamides, etc., in the prenatal postpartum 1 week of sows, piglets in the pre-weaning and lactation stage in advance drug prevention.
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