Fertilizer outside the roots is also called foliar fertilizer. It is a fertilization method that dissolves the fertilizer in water and sprays the liquid fertilizer on the leaves with a sprayer. The top dressing of flue-cured tobacco should pay attention to the following six aspects:
Use water-soluble foliar fertilizers. Since the foliar fertilizer is sprayed directly as a solution, the fertilizer with better water solubility should be selected. Otherwise, after the insoluble matter is sprayed on the surface of the crop, not only can it not be absorbed, but it can also cause damage to the leaves. The purity of foliar fertilizers should be high, impurities should be small, and water insolubles in fertilizers should not exceed 5%.
The pH of the foliar fertilizer should be suitable. Nutritional elements have different states of presence under different acid and alkaline conditions. To exert the maximum effect of the foliar fertilizer, it is generally required that the pH of the solution be between 5-8. If the pH value is too high or too low, it will not only affect the absorption of nutrient elements, but also cause harm to the plants.
The concentration of foliar fertilizer should be appropriate. The top-dressing fertilizer and root fertilization are different, there is no buffering effect of the soil, we must master the spraying concentration. When the concentration is too low, the amount of nutrients that the tobacco plants contact is small, and the effect is not obvious. When the concentration is too high, the leaves are often burned to cause damage. It should be noted that the same fertilizer is sprayed at different concentrations during different growth periods of the crop.
Fertilizer is fully dissolved and mixed with water. If superphosphate is used, it should be soaked with hot water and stirred with superphosphate. After 24 hours, the supernatant should be diluted with 3% solution and then sprayed.
The foliar fertilizer must be used with it and cannot be stored for a long time. Such as ferrous sulfate leaf fertilizer, newly formulated should be light green, no precipitation. If the solution turns auburn or a tan precipitate occurs, it indicates that low-valent iron ions have been oxidized to high-valent iron ions, and the effectiveness of the fertilizer has been greatly reduced. If the ferrous sulfate solution is formulated with a slightly alkaline or high calcium content, precipitation and oxidation will be accelerated. Therefore, in order to reduce the formation of precipitates and slow down the oxidation rate, when preparing the ferrous sulfate solution, 10 ml of mineral acid may be added per 100 liters of water, and then ferrous sulfate may be dissolved in already acidified water. In the spraying of trace element fertilizers, urea can be added to increase the absorption rate of tobacco plants; it can also be sprayed with pesticides, which can not only prevent and treat pests but also achieve the purpose of fertilization. It should be noted that phosphorus-containing fertilizers generally cannot be mixed with pesticides containing lime.
Choose the right spray time. In order to prolong the time when the foliar is wetted with the fertilizer solution and promote the absorption of nutrients, the spraying time is best selected from around 3 pm to late in the afternoon. This can delay the drying speed of foliar spray droplets and facilitate the penetration of nutrients into the leaves. If heavy rain occurs after top dressing, it should be sprayed again.
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